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Contributor's Style Guidelines

The process of publishing consists of an elaborate set of details, 
no one of which is important unless it is overlooked or poorly executed.

(Editorial, Journal of Scholarly Publishing 1996, 3)

In order to streamline the editing process as much as possible, please conform to the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript for publication.

It is very important that manuscripts conform to these guidelines; below you will find information about organization, figure and table submissions, numbers, quotations, a broad-based miscellaneous category, and examples of in-text citations and bibliographic references. Papers will be returned to authors who have not formatted their materials accordingly (authors can request that their materials be edited to meet the guidelines if they wish: the fees will be charged back to the author on a cost-recovery basis).

The following website is useful as a general guide,


 If you have any questions regarding these instructions, please contact


Important Note About Citations

We emphasize this point right from the start because it is time-consuming and costly to change it after the fact.

The journal uses the author-date citation system, which entails use of a references section and lists all sources there, rather than the “documentary-note” or “humanities” system. A complete explanation of the difference, taken from the Chicago Manual of Style’s website,; is included at the end of this style sheet.

In the text, in parentheses, note the author's name, year, and page number(s).

Do not use footnotes, and the use of endnotes should be kept to a minimum; most important information should be presented in the text.

Limit the use of notes to additional information only. Do not use notes in place of citations. If an article is submitted with endnotes that list only authors and dates and do not supply any additional information, we will return it and ask that it be reformatted (or reformat it in our office and charge the author – fees are set on a cost-recovery basis).

Limit the number of sources cited to substantiate or amplify your points. There should not be more than three sources listed for any single point; please choose the best references available, those that make the point most succinctly, or most recently, or whatever criteria you feel appropriate, but limit the number. Three is the maximum, and less is more in this case.

Check all in-text citations to ensure they are in the bibliography and that each is complete. Also check that all sources cited in the bibliography are listed in the References segment.

Use only Arabic numbers for endnotes, i.e., 1, 2, 3, as Roman numerals and/or letter designations often do not survive conversion.

Do not use the automated endnote or footnote feature available in word-processing software, as entire endnotes and reference lists may disappear when we strip the coding. Enter endnotes and the numbers indicating notes manually (i.e., endnotes imbedded in your word processing program do not always come through and must be provided as non-imbedded text). We realize that the automated feature is useful and easy to use, thus we suggest that you use it while preparing your document if you wish, and convert the notes manually when you are ready to submit the final version.

Place the note number after the ending punctuation, for example, ………………… end of sentence. 1

Examples illustrating how to format notes and references are provided at the end of this style sheet.


General Stylistic Considerations

Submit your material in Microsoft Word or Rich Text format (RTF) (translating Word Perfect files is difficult, please use the "Save As" feature in Word Perfect and send as Word or RTF files). If French language materials are included, they must be submitted in Word, as RTF does not always retain accents.

Please avoid unnecessary formatting, as we strip all formatting from manuscripts. For example, we strip heading styles, paragraph styles, tabs, and endnote and footnote functions.

Line spacing: Manuscripts submitted for assessment should be double-spaced to allow for comments. Once accepted for publication, single spacing is used.

Headings and subheadings: We use a particular format for headings and sub-headings. Please indicate headings, sub-headings and third-level headings clearly. Capitalize the first letter of all words except of, and, an, the, etc. in all headings and titles, including table and figure headings.

Manuscripts accepted for publication must conform to the Chicago Manual of Style guidelines, 14th edition.

The journal uses British spelling and the Oxford Canadian Dictionary.

Arrange your material as follows:

Author’s name 
Title of article
Abstracts (French/English or English/French)
Body of article
Biographic Information (brief, 150 words or less, including email address)


We understand that not all authors will always have the time (and sometimes, in the case of authors whose first language is not English or French, they may not have the training needed) to edit their work completely according to the instructions given below. In order to lessen the load  and to avoid any misunderstandings, we can do much of the work involved for the authors at cost. The amount charged depends entirely on how long the work takes, thus we can offer only an approximate figure of around $50.00 for a regular sized reference segment. If the entire text must be checked carefully and reformatted, etc., the cost may approach $250.00. An estimate will be given before the work is begun. Let us know if you need this kind of assistance.




We use a particular format for headings and sub-headings. Please indicate headings, sub-headings, and third-level headings clearly. Capitalize the first letter of all words except of, and, an, the, etc. in all headings and subheadings, and for table and figure titles.



Figures must be numbered consecutively according to their appearance in the text. Figure legends and titles should be on a separate page and placed at the end of the manuscript with the figures.

Note their placement in the text by indicating “Place Figure 1 here.” We will place them as close to the desired location as possible.

All figures should be grey-scale only, as we do not print in colour. If a figure/map/diagram is not done in shades of gray, it may not be legible.

Maps, figures, etc. should be sent in EPS or TIFF formats. Any text must be set in a legend below the figure/map/diagram. Text should be in times 10 point font, and the heading (title and number) must not be part of the figure. Include a heading in times 10 point font in the text of your article, and as a separate text box above the figure itself (as we usually cannot edit the figure).

The journal is approximately 6 by 9 inches, and most maps and diagrams take up only half a page, thus the finished item is small. Too much detail may produce an illegible result.


Quotation Marks and Other Distinctive Word Treatments

Block quotations- Use this style when the quote is longer than four lines, indent, single space, parentheses around source at end, no punctuation after source.

Nationalities, tribes and other groups of people: Authors are reminded of two basic guidelines.
1.  Specificity: always use the most specific term rather than the more general
2.   Sensitivity: authors are encouraged to ask their participants which term they prefer.

African American should be capitalized and seems to be preferred, but capitalized Black is also accepted.  
Examples:  The Blacks in the study felt …;  The almost exclusively black neighbourhood...

Names of specific racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groupings are capitalized as follows. 
Examples: Arab, Asian, Hispanic, Mormon, Muslim, Latin American, Anglophone, Indigenous people, First Nations peoples, First Peoples, Indian, Aboriginal peoples.

Slang/distinctive words/invented expressions/ironic comments

Use double quotation marks only; single quotation marks may be used only to set off quotations within quotations. Periods and commas at the end of quotations should always appear inside, not outside, the closing quotation mark. Please italicize words that require emphasis, and keep these to a minimum. The sentence context should provide the emphasis needed, rather than distinctive word treatment.

Words that may be considered slang may be italicized if they would be considered foreign to the normal vocabulary of the author. Italicize the first time, but thereafter do not treat them differently.

Emphasized words:
Do not use italics for emphasis unless the emphasis might otherwise be lost. Syntax is preferable to provide emphasis. Whole sentences and entire passages should not be set in italics for emphasis.

Foreign words:
Isolated words and phrases in a foreign language can be set in italics, but a passage of two or more sentences in a foreign language should be treated as a quotation. Once a foreign word or phrase is common enough to be relatively well-known, it should no longer be italicized (for example, bona fide).

Countries: The names of countries are spelled out in text unless contained in tightly spaced tables or similar situations. In the case of the United States, the preferable form is U.S. (not US).



Italicize (rather than underline) all book titles. Underlined words are more difficult to read.

Pay close attention to punctuation, particularly with respect to quotations.

Check all bibliographic citations to ensure they are in the bibliography and that each is complete.

The journal uses serial commas, e.g., the rain, the park, and other things.

Put spaces before and after ellipsis points, for example,  the rain … and other things. Do not use four periods; three periods are acceptable in all cases.

Put spaces before and after en- and em-dashes, example,  the issue – contrary to perceptions.

Dates: Write out dates, for example, the twentieth century. Dates are written out as day/month/year, e.g., 10 June 2005. Do not use apostrophes, e.g., 1940s, not 1940’s.

Do not use double spaces between sentences (the habit harkens back to the old typewriter days, and is no longer necessary with word processing software).

Data is treated as a plural word.

Use lower case when referring to parts or chapters of a book: for example, “In part two,” or “following the discussion in chapter two,” BUT in parentheses, abbreviations are acceptable “(chap. 2).”

Compound words such as Latin American and African American should be hyphenated when they precede the noun, and not hyphenated if they follow it or stand alone.  The African-American youth…   Some Latin Americans state…



Spell out in ordinary text:
whole numbers from one to ninety-nine;
any of the whole numbers above followed by hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, and so on;
any numeral that would ordinarily be set in numerals is spelled out if it is at the beginning of a sentence. For all other numbers, numerals are used. 
Examples: Thirty leading experts in the field agree about this issue; The rental agreement quotes a total of twelve months; The book had a total of 723 pages, with 10,000 copies printed for the first edition; The rooms all contain three shelves. 

Common fractions
 should be spelled out; Two-thirds, one-half, etc. 
If a symbol or abbreviation is used, then the number should be expressed as a numeral, e.g., 3 mi., 12 V, 2’3”

Percentages and decimal fractions are set in numerals except in parenthesis, for example, “Only 65 percent of the students passed the final exam,” BUT (for example, 65% of students passed).

Write percent as one word.

Currency is expressed in numeric form as long as a symbol is used for the unit of currency. If the currency unit is spelled out, then the number should also be spelled out, for example, 
        The book was seven dollars. 
        The movie cost $12.  
The abbreviation for Canadian currency is CAD.

Dates: Write out dates, for example, the twentieth century. Dates are written out as day/month/year, e.g., 10 June 2005. Do not use apostrophes, e.g., 1940s, not 1940’s.

If a paragraph or segment contains numerous numbers, it may be acceptable not to spell them out.

Use an en-dash in place of a hyphen in date and page ranges, e.g., 1999–2002; pp. 4–24.



Tables must be numbered consecutively according to their appearance in the text. Titles and legends are presented together and placed at the end of the manuscript. Note their placement in the text by indicating “Place Table 1 here.” We will place them as close to the desired location as possible without separating the table across two pages.

Tables should be formatted using Word, Excel, or Rich Text programs, rather than in a more specialized spreadsheet program. Please do not worry about the loss of formatting, as we need to remove all formatting commands and replace them with our own before publication. The simpler the table looks, the better. We will duplicate the table’s appearance from the hard copy you send.

Do not use all capitals in headings in tables, charts, etc. (or anywhere else, for that matter).

Headings in tables- Capitalize the first letter of all words except of, and, an, the, etc.

Prepare tables using tabs and do not include vertical lines.

All numbers should be carried to the same number of decimal places; use 0 when necessary.

The percentage symbol (or any other symbol occurring frequently) should appear once in each applicable category heading rather than appearing numerous times in each cell in the table.

Use 9 point, Times or Times New Roman font in tables.

 (use 8 point Times font for notes below tables, and for notes at the end of articles).


 Notes with tables: (notes are 8 point times font, and there is a period at the end of each note).

Notes are ordered in the following manner:

1)      1. source notes, e.g.,

Source: Author’s calculation based on Statistics Canada’s input-output table.

2)      2. other general notes.

3)      3. notes on specific parts of the table (a legend; e.g., * is number of items, ** is percentage of items, and so on).

4)      4. notes on level of probability (e.g., p = .05. **  p = .01.  etc.).


A rudimentary table is included at the end of this page to illustrate the appropriate format.


Note and Reference Examples


ABasic Form for in-text citations: Include the author’s last or family name, and the year of publication. No punctuation is used between the name and year. Where the reference list includes more than one work by an author with the same last name and date, the author’s initial should be included. 
Examples:             (Broom 1989, 123); (Collins and Righter 1977); (J. Smith 1988)

B. Two or three authors: All names are included, using and, not an ampersand. 
Examples:        (Smith and Jones 1978); (Brown, White, and Black 1989)

C. More than three authors: Use the name of the first author followed by et al. or and others.   Example:              (Haver et al. 1978)

D. If there is more than one reference in the manuscript to the same author(s) and the same year of publication, insert a, b, c, and so forth following the year. Example: (Zipursky 1967a; Zipursky 1967b)

E. When page numbers are used, they follow the date with a comma. 
Examples:        (Foley 1978, 123); (James 1999, app. A)

F. When two or more references are given together in one parenthetical citation, they are separated by semicolons. 
Example:        (Crass and Wong 1988, 415–17; Jones 1990; Smith 1978)

G. If the author's name is in the text, it is omitted in the reference.

Example: Osborne claims that “The process of creating national citizens was and is subject to many different, and often conflicting, interpretations” (2000, 9).

“The process of creating national citizens was, and is subject to many different, and often conflicting, interpretations” (Osborne 2000, 9).

If the reference is to a complete work, page numbers are not required.


General pointers:  
Do not format references (in terms of placement of text) with indentations, etc. Our software does that automatically. Do, however, italicize book and journal titles.

Do not use more than three references for any one point or idea.

If you cite materials from the journal, please use the following form:
Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada.

Always include page numbers of journal articles, and for chapters in compilations whenever possible.

Include the author’s full given and family names wherever possible.

If an author has more than one entry in the references section, replace second and subsequent author names with 3 em-dashes: 
———. List works chronologically, beginning with the earliest publication (but list all single authored works before co-authored works where the same author is the first co-author). Single authored works come before multiple authored works, then by date…

List original works first, then edited works.

Do not place quotation marks around article titles.


LeVasseur, Gilles. 2002. Ottawa et la reconnaissance d'un statut officiel pour les langues française et anglaiseOttawa: Le Nordir.

With translation:

Hountondji, Pauline.  2002. The Struggle for Meaning: Reflections on Philosophy, Culture, and Democracy in Africa. Translated by John Conteh-Morgan. Athens, OH: Ohio University Centre for International Studies.

Subsequent Editions:

Hountondji, Pauline. 2002. The Struggle for Meaning: Reflections on Philosophy, Culture, and Democracy in Africa. 2nd ed. Athens, OH: Ohio University Centre for International Studies.

Edited volumes:

Bruno-Jofré, Rosa, and Natalia Aponiuk, eds. 2000. Educating Citizens for a Pluralistic Society. Calgary: Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada.

Chapter in edited book or compilation:

Osborne, Ken. 2000. Public Schooling and Citizenship Education in Canada. In Educating Citizens for a Pluralistic Society, ed. R. Bruno-Jofré and N. Aponiuk, 837. Calgary: Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada.

Preface, forward, introduction, etc.:

Bruno-Jofré, Rosa. 2000. Introduction to Educating Citizens for a Pluralistic Society, ed. R. Bruno-Jofré and N. Aponiuk, 1–7. Calgary: Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada.

Journal Article: (do not italicize article titles, do italicize and capitalize journal names)

Walters, William H. 2002. Later-life Migration in the United States: A Review of Recent Research. Journal of Planning Literature 17, no. 1: 3766.

Not yet published:

Osborne, Ken. Forthcoming (or In Press). Public Schooling and Citizenship Education in Canada. In Educating Citizens for a Pluralistic Society, ed. R. Bruno-Jofré and N. Aponiuk, 837. Calgary: Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada.

Book Reviews:

D’Alisera, JoAnn. 2003. Review of Ghosts and Shadows, by Atsuko Matsuoka and John Sorenson. Journal of the Royal Anthropology Institute 9, no. 1: 189–90.

Working papers:
Jackson, Nancy. 2003. Critical Engagements with Citizenship. Working paper, Ontario Institute of Education series, Toronto.

Conference papers:
Jackson, Nancy. 2003. Critical Engagements with Citizenship. Paper presented at the Transformative Learning Conference, University of Toronto, October.

Research reports:

Jackson, Nancy.  2003. Report on Critical Engagements with Citizenship. Document no. 1a. Calgary.


Jackson, Nancy.  2003. Critical Engagements with Citizenship. Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto.

Jackson, Nancy. 2003. Critical Engagements with Citizenship. Master’s thesis, University of Toronto.


Globe and Mail. 1999. Editorial, 24 July.

Simpson, Jeffrey.  2002. Bush Wins Election, Globe and Mail, A15, 3 November.


For URLs, follow normal reference format in text and cite full URL in references (URL given by source rather than by search engine) with date accessed [accessed 10 June 2004]

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women After Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), [accessed January 7, 2002]


Personal communications

In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2002, John Doe revealed that ...
Or the reference may be given in a note:
2. John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2002.
E-mail messages, letters, and the like are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list. Note that individuals’ e-mail addresses should be omitted.


 Examples of Chicago-Style Documentation (from their website)

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date system. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The more concise author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

The Journal uses the author-date system, except in rare circumstances.


Table 1
Level of Education






Percentage of 
respondents replying

Number of 

Number of  

Graduate degree




Some post-secondary




High school












Thank you very much for your attention to these matters.

Should you have any questions, please contact us at

Founded in 1969, our fully refereed, interdisciplinary journal is devoted to the study of ethnicity, immigration, inter-group relations, and the history and cultural life of ethnic groups in Canada. Issues also include book and film reviews, opinions, immigrant memoirs, translations of primary sources, an "ethnic voices" section, and an annual index. The journal is published three times a year and is the official publication of the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association.